[ Psalm 23 ]


The Psalms are a collection of 150 religious hymns in the Hebrew Bible. These songs reflect the Israelites' belief in God as the powerful savior of Israel. Many of the psalms praise the faithfulness of God to each of his people. In Psalm 23, the speaker describes his faith in God's protection and celebrates the Israelites' sense of a special relationship with a loving God.

Primary Source

  • The LORD is my shepherd,
  • I shall not want;
  • he makes me lie down in green pastures.
  • He leads me beside still waters;
  • he restores [return to a former condition] my soul.
  • He leads me in paths of righteousness for his name's sake.
  • Even though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death,
  • I fear no evil;
  • for thou art with me;
  • thy rod and thy staff [walking stick],
  • they comfort me.
  • Thou preparest a table before me in the presence of my enemies;
  • thou anointest [rub into a part of the body as part of a religious ceremony] my head with oil, my cup overflows.
  • Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life;
  • and I shall dwell in the house of the LORD for ever.


  1. Analyze Style and Rhetoric How would you describe the tone of this psalm? How does this tone reflect the relationship the Israelites had with God?
  2. Determine Central Ideas How does this psalm reflect the Israelites' belief that God is a powerful savior?
  3. Determine Author's Purpose Why do you think this psalm uses so many instances of metaphor? What might the speaker hope to convey?

[ The Republic, Plato ]


Plato was an ancient Greek teacher and philosopher. In The Republic, he examines the question: Is it always a good thing to be just? The book takes the form of a long conversation between Socrates (Plato's teacher) and several of his friends. Before deciding whether it is always good for a person to be just, Socrates suggests discussing what makes a city-state just. For much of the book, the characters work out their plan for a perfect city-state.

In this translation, Socrates is the narrator.

Primary Source

“Yes,” I said, “I too would have good judges and good physicians. But do you know whom I think good?”

“Will you tell me?”

“I will, if I can. Let me however note that in the same question you join two things which are not the same.”

“How so?” he asked.

“Why,” I said, “you join physicians and judges. Now the most skilful physicians are those who, from their youth upwards, have combined with the knowledge of their art the greatest experience of disease; they had better not be robust [strong] in health, and should have had all manner [kinds; sorts] of diseases in their own persons. For the body, as I conceive [see it], is not the instrument with which they cure the body; in that case we could not allow them ever to be or to have been sickly; but they cure the body with the mind, and the mind which has become and is sick can cure nothing.”

“That is very true,” he said.

“But with the judge it is otherwise; since he governs mind by mind; he ought not therefore to have been trained among vicious minds, and to have associated with them from youth upwards, and to have gone through the whole calendar of crime, only in order that he may quickly infer the crimes of others as he might their bodily diseases from his own self-consciousness; the honourable mind which is to form a healthy judgment should have had no experience or contamination of evil habits when young.

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Table of Contents

World History Topic 1 Origins of Civilization (Prehistory–300 B.C.) Topic 2 The Ancient Middle East and Egypt (3200 B.C.–500 B.C.) Topic 3 Ancient India and China (2600 B.C.–A.D. 550) Topic 4 The Americas (Prehistory–A.D. 1570) Topic 5 Ancient Greece (1750 B.C.–133 B.C.) Topic 6 Ancient Rome and the Origins of Christianity (509 B.C.-A.D. 476) Topic 7 Medieval Christian Europe (330–1450) Topic 8 The Muslim World and Africa (730 B.C.-A.D. 1500) Topic 9 Civilizations of Asia (500–1650) Topic 10 The Renaissance and Reformation (1300–1650) Topic 11 New Global Connections (1415–1796) Topic 12 Absolutism and Revolution Topic 13 The Industrial Revolution Topic 14 Nationalism and the Spread of Democracy (1790–1914) Topic 15 The Age of Imperialism (1800–1914) Topic 16 World War I and the Russian Revolution (1914–1924) Topic 17 The World Between the Wars (1910–1939) Topic 18 World War II (1930–1945) Topic 19 The Cold War Era (1945–1991) Topic 20 New Nations Emerge (1945–Present) Topic 21 The World Today (1980-Present) United States Constitution Primary Sources 21st Century Skills Atlas Glossary Index Acknowledgments