1. Explain Roles Write a paragraph explaining how Mikhail Gorbachev's policies led to the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Consider the problems caused by his efforts at reform, opposition to these policies, and how the results contributed to the fall of the Soviet Union.
  2. Explain Roles Write a paragraph explaining the roles of Lech Walesa and Pope John Paul II in the fall of communism in Poland. Consider Walesa's role in the Polish Solidarity movement and the Pope's views of communism. How did this lead to pressure for reforms by other communist countries?
  3. Formulate Generalizations Write a paragraph that explains the benefits of free enterprise and democracy for the Polish people. Consider economic reforms in Poland, the pros and cons of a free market economy, and the issues with communist command industries.
  4. Describe Influences Write a paragraph describing how Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher influenced policies regarding the welfare state and private industry. Consider the effect of changes made in social spending levels, privatization of certain industries, and curbing the power of the labor unions.

    Area graph titled welfare collected in united kingdom.
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  5. Describe Major Effects, Summarize Outcomes, and Identify Characteristics Write a paragraph about how U.S. policies after World War II were designed to prevent communist revolutions in several European countries. Consider the geographic locations of countries that received American aid and those that did not, the goals of postwar international aid programs, and how U.S. aid supported free-market economies.

    A map shows NATO and the Warsaw Pact, circa 1977.
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  6. Explain Effects Write a paragraph that describes how new forms of military technology impacted the Cold War. Consider the Cuban Missile Crisis, nuclear arms, and the space race and satellite technology.
  7. Identify Individuals Write a paragraph that describes how Andrei Sakharov, Natan Sharansky, and Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn resisted political oppression in the Soviet Union. Consider their complaints against the Soviet government, their punishments, and the reasons for publicizing their cases.
  8. Summarize Outcomes Write a paragraph that describes how post-World War II decisions led to regional conflicts that contributed to the Cold War. Consider the opposing ideologies of the two superpowers, the use of occupying forces in East Asia, Soviet support for communist China, and the events that led to the Korean War.
  9. Write an essay on the Essential Question: How should we handle conflict? Use evidence from your study of this Topic to support your answer.

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Table of Contents

World History Topic 1 Origins of Civilization (Prehistory–300 B.C.) Topic 2 The Ancient Middle East and Egypt (3200 B.C.–500 B.C.) Topic 3 Ancient India and China (2600 B.C.–A.D. 550) Topic 4 The Americas (Prehistory–A.D. 1570) Topic 5 Ancient Greece (1750 B.C.–133 B.C.) Topic 6 Ancient Rome and the Origins of Christianity (509 B.C.-A.D. 476) Topic 7 Medieval Christian Europe (330–1450) Topic 8 The Muslim World and Africa (730 B.C.-A.D. 1500) Topic 9 Civilizations of Asia (500–1650) Topic 10 The Renaissance and Reformation (1300–1650) Topic 11 New Global Connections (1415–1796) Topic 12 Absolutism and Revolution Topic 13 The Industrial Revolution Topic 14 Nationalism and the Spread of Democracy (1790–1914) Topic 15 The Age of Imperialism (1800–1914) Topic 16 World War I and the Russian Revolution (1914–1924) Topic 17 The World Between the Wars (1910–1939) Topic 18 World War II (1930–1945) Topic 19 The Cold War Era (1945–1991) Topic 20 New Nations Emerge (1945–Present) Topic 21 The World Today (1980-Present) United States Constitution Primary Sources 21st Century Skills Atlas Glossary Index Acknowledgments