- After Napoleon's defeat, conservatives tried to restore monarchies while liberals called for constitutional governments.
- Nationalism and liberalism led to a series of revolutions in Europe.
- Influenced by the American and French revolutions, Latin American colonies won independence.
- Nationalism led to the unification of Germany and Italy but threatened the Austrian and Ottoman empires.
- In Britain and the United States, democracy expanded as more people won the right to vote.
- After France's defeat by Prussia, the Third Republic was established.
- In Russia, the cycle of reform and repression led to instability.
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