Motivated by their religious values, Christians and Jews founded many organizations to help those in need. In Paris, Frédéric Ozanum established the St. Vincent de Paul Society in 1833. By 1878, William and Catherine Booth had set up the Salvation Army in London.

It both spread Christian teachings and provided social services. Their daughter, Evangeline Booth, later helped bring the Salvation Army to North America. In 1881, the Jewish community in New York founded the Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society, which provided shelter, food, employment, and education to many new immigrants.

Photo of a woman in uniform shaking a bell next to a cauldron hung under a tripod. A group of men and boys near hold a sign saying, the salvation army: help commander Eva both keep the pot boiling.

The hardships of industrial life led to the creation of numerous charitable organizations, including the Salvation Army, which provided many services to the needy.

The Romantics Turn from Reason

The Industrial Age shaped the arts as well as society and science. Many writers turned away from the harsh realities of industrial life to celebrate the peace and beauty of nature. These writers were part of a cultural movement called romanticism. Romanticism emphasized imagination, freedom, and emotion. (Romance, in the sense of romantic love, was not the focus of the movement.) From the late 1700s to 1850, romanticism shaped much of Western literature and arts.

Romantic Poetry

Romantic writers, artists, and composers rebelled against the Enlightenment emphasis on reason, order, and emotional restraint. Instead, romantic writers focused on simple, direct language that conveyed intense feelings and glorified nature.

English poet William Wordsworth helped launch this cultural movement with the publication of Lyrical Ballads in 1789. Wordsworth rejected formal styles and conventions, and instead experimented with poetic forms and focused on common people and subjects, like the peace and beauty of the sunset.

Painting of a balding older man with arms crossed, looking down, in front of a dark natural backdrop.

Romantic paintings often focused on nature and emotion. Note the romantic features of this portrait of William Wordsworth. His arms are crossed, and his head is down as though he is brooding about something. A dramatic landscape looms behind him.

It is a beauteous evening, calm and free,

The holy time is quiet as a Nun

Breathless with adoration; the broad sun


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Table of Contents

World History Topic 1 Origins of Civilization (Prehistory–300 B.C.) Topic 2 The Ancient Middle East and Egypt (3200 B.C.–500 B.C.) Topic 3 Ancient India and China (2600 B.C.–A.D. 550) Topic 4 The Americas (Prehistory–A.D. 1570) Topic 5 Ancient Greece (1750 B.C.–133 B.C.) Topic 6 Ancient Rome and the Origins of Christianity (509 B.C.-A.D. 476) Topic 7 Medieval Christian Europe (330–1450) Topic 8 The Muslim World and Africa (730 B.C.-A.D. 1500) Topic 9 Civilizations of Asia (500–1650) Topic 10 The Renaissance and Reformation (1300–1650) Topic 11 New Global Connections (1415–1796) Topic 12 Absolutism and Revolution Topic 13 The Industrial Revolution Topic 14 Nationalism and the Spread of Democracy (1790–1914) Topic 15 The Age of Imperialism (1800–1914) Topic 16 World War I and the Russian Revolution (1914–1924) Topic 17 The World Between the Wars (1910–1939) Topic 18 World War II (1930–1945) Topic 19 The Cold War Era (1945–1991) Topic 20 New Nations Emerge (1945–Present) Topic 21 The World Today (1980-Present) United States Constitution Primary Sources 21st Century Skills Atlas Glossary Index Acknowledgments