Motivated by their religious values, Christians and Jews founded many organizations to help those in need. In Paris, Frédéric Ozanum established the St. Vincent de Paul Society in 1833. By 1878, William and Catherine Booth had set up the Salvation Army in London.
It both spread Christian teachings and provided social services. Their daughter, Evangeline Booth, later helped bring the Salvation Army to North America. In 1881, the Jewish community in New York founded the Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society, which provided shelter, food, employment, and education to many new immigrants.
The hardships of industrial life led to the creation of numerous charitable organizations, including the Salvation Army, which provided many services to the needy.
What social services did religious organizations provide?
The Industrial Age shaped the arts as well as society and science. Many writers turned away from the harsh realities of industrial life to celebrate the peace and beauty of nature. These writers were part of a cultural movement called romanticism. Romanticism emphasized imagination, freedom, and emotion. (Romance, in the sense of romantic love, was not the focus of the movement.) From the late 1700s to 1850, romanticism shaped much of Western literature and arts.
Romantic writers, artists, and composers rebelled against the Enlightenment emphasis on reason, order, and emotional restraint. Instead, romantic writers focused on simple, direct language that conveyed intense feelings and glorified nature.
English poet William Wordsworth helped launch this cultural movement with the publication of Lyrical Ballads in 1789. Wordsworth rejected formal styles and conventions, and instead experimented with poetic forms and focused on common people and subjects, like the peace and beauty of the sunset.
Romantic paintings often focused on nature and emotion. Note the romantic features of this portrait of William Wordsworth. His arms are crossed, and his head is down as though he is brooding about something. A dramatic landscape looms behind him.
It is a beauteous evening, calm and free,
The holy time is quiet as a Nun
Breathless with adoration; the broad sun