This growth of industry and rapid population growth dramatically changed the location and distribution of two resources—labor and people.
What led to the massive migration of people from farms to cities?
The Industrial Revolution helped create both a new middle class and a new urban working class. The middle class included entrepreneurs and others who profited from the growth of industry and the rise of cities. The middle class enjoyed a comfortable lifestyle.
When farm laborers and others moved to the new industrial cities, they took jobs in factories or mines. In rural villages, they had strong ties to a community, where their families had lived for generations. In the cities, they felt lost and bewildered. In time, though, factory and mine workers developed their own sense of community.
Those who benefited most from the Industrial Revolution were the entrepreneurs who set it in motion. The Industrial Revolution created this new middle class, or bourgeoisie (boor zhwah ZEE), whose members came from a variety of backgrounds. Some were merchants who invested their profits in factories. Others were inventors or skilled artisans who developed
new technologies. Some rose from “rags to riches,” a pattern that the age greatly admired. Middle-class families lived in well-built, well-furnished homes. In time, middle-class neighborhoods had paved streets and a steady water supply. These families dressed and ate well. The new middle class took pride in their hard work and their determination to “get ahead.” Only a few had sympathy for the poor.
As a sign of their new and improved status, middle-class women sought to imitate the wealthy women of the upper classes. They did not do physical labor or work outside the home. They hired maidservants to care for their homes and look after their children.
While the wealthy and the middle class lived in pleasant neighborhoods, vast numbers of poor struggled to survive in foul-smelling slums. They packed into tiny rooms in tenements, or multistory buildings divided into apartments. These tenements had no running water, only community pumps. Early industrial cities had no sewage or sanitation systems, so waste and garbage rotted in the streets.
The expanding middle class included working-class people who found new opportunities because of industrialization.
Which class changed the least due to industrialization?