- Absolute monarchs such as Louis XIV of France exerted complete authority over their kingdoms.
- England developed a limited monarchy with a written constitution.
- Enlightenment philosophers applied reason to political, social, and economic problems.
- Ideas such as natural rights shaped the American Revolution and the U.S. Constitution.
- An unequal social system sparked the French Revolution, in which the monarchy was replaced by a republic.
- As emperor of France, Napoleon Bonaparte began a series of wars that had lasting effects on Europe and the Americas.
Watch the My Story Video
to learn about King Louis XIV of France, the greatest of the absolute monarchs.