Graph titled native American population of central Mexico.
Image Long Description

Analyze Graphs

What is the estimated population decline between 1519 and 1540? How does it compare with the population change between 1540 and 1580? Why?

Resistance did not always take the form of military action. Throughout the Americas, Native Americans resisted Europeans by preserving their own cultures, languages, religious traditions, and skills, such as weaving and pottery. As you will read later, European exploration and colonization had tremendous global impact even beyond the Americas by connecting people, goods, and ideas around the world.


  1. Identify Patterns Describe the common effects of the first encounters between the Spanish and Native Americans in Mexico, Peru, and elsewhere.
  2. Draw Conclusions Why were Native Americans unable to defeat the Spanish conquistadors?
  3. Identify Main Ideas Describe the main characteristics of government, religion, and economics in Spain's colonies in the Americas.
  4. Categorize Explain how the people of Spanish colonial society were categorized into different social classes.
  5. Predict Consequences How do you think other European nations will threaten Spanish and Portuguese power in the Americas?

End ofPage 405

Table of Contents

World History Topic 1 Origins of Civilization (Prehistory–300 B.C.) Topic 2 The Ancient Middle East and Egypt (3200 B.C.–500 B.C.) Topic 3 Ancient India and China (2600 B.C.–A.D. 550) Topic 4 The Americas (Prehistory–A.D. 1570) Topic 5 Ancient Greece (1750 B.C.–133 B.C.) Topic 6 Ancient Rome and the Origins of Christianity (509 B.C.-A.D. 476) Topic 7 Medieval Christian Europe (330–1450) Topic 8 The Muslim World and Africa (730 B.C.-A.D. 1500) Topic 9 Civilizations of Asia (500–1650) Topic 10 The Renaissance and Reformation (1300–1650) Topic 11 New Global Connections (1415–1796) Topic 12 Absolutism and Revolution Topic 13 The Industrial Revolution Topic 14 Nationalism and the Spread of Democracy (1790–1914) Topic 15 The Age of Imperialism (1800–1914) Topic 16 World War I and the Russian Revolution (1914–1924) Topic 17 The World Between the Wars (1910–1939) Topic 18 World War II (1930–1945) Topic 19 The Cold War Era (1945–1991) Topic 20 New Nations Emerge (1945–Present) Topic 21 The World Today (1980-Present) United States Constitution Primary Sources 21st Century Skills Atlas Glossary Index Acknowledgments