Enduring Understandings

  • A number of early civilizations and empires arose in the Fertile Crescent, a region of the Middle East that became a crossroads where people and ideas met and mingled.
  • Sumerian city-states had distinct social structures, and Sumerian ideas and innovations influenced later civilizations.
  • The ancient Israelites' belief in a single all-knowing, all-powerful God developed into Judaism, the world's first monotheistic religion and an influence on later religions and civilizations.
  • Daily life in Egypt was strongly affected by religious beliefs, and Egyptians made many advances in art, literature, and learning.
Video screenshot with play button over clay bust of Hatshepsut with Nile river and pyramids in the background.

Watch the My Story Video

to learn about the story of Hatshepsut, a ruler of ancient Egypt.

End ofPage 25

Table of Contents

World History Topic 1 Origins of Civilization (Prehistory–300 B.C.) Topic 2 The Ancient Middle East and Egypt (3200 B.C.–500 B.C.) Topic 3 Ancient India and China (2600 B.C.–A.D. 550) Topic 4 The Americas (Prehistory–A.D. 1570) Topic 5 Ancient Greece (1750 B.C.–133 B.C.) Topic 6 Ancient Rome and the Origins of Christianity (509 B.C.-A.D. 476) Topic 7 Medieval Christian Europe (330–1450) Topic 8 The Muslim World and Africa (730 B.C.-A.D. 1500) Topic 9 Civilizations of Asia (500–1650) Topic 10 The Renaissance and Reformation (1300–1650) Topic 11 New Global Connections (1415–1796) Topic 12 Absolutism and Revolution Topic 13 The Industrial Revolution Topic 14 Nationalism and the Spread of Democracy (1790–1914) Topic 15 The Age of Imperialism (1800–1914) Topic 16 World War I and the Russian Revolution (1914–1924) Topic 17 The World Between the Wars (1910–1939) Topic 18 World War II (1930–1945) Topic 19 The Cold War Era (1945–1991) Topic 20 New Nations Emerge (1945–Present) Topic 21 The World Today (1980-Present) United States Constitution Primary Sources 21st Century Skills Atlas Glossary Index Acknowledgments