Diagram of causes and effects.
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This shows the causes and effects of the Hundred Years' War.

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What event began the Hundred Years' War?

Results of the Long War

After Joan's death, the French took the offensive. With a powerful new weapon, the cannon, they attacked English-held castles. By 1453, the English held only the port of Calais in northwestern France.

In the end, the Hundred Years' War set France and England on different paths. The war created a growing sense of national feeling in France and allowed French kings to expand their power.

On the other hand, during the war, English rulers turned repeatedly to Parliament for funds, which helped that body win the “power of the purse.” England ended up losing its French lands, but that setback was not disastrous for them. With their dreams of a continental empire shattered, English rulers turned to new trading ventures overseas.

Change and Recovery

The Hundred Years' War brought many changes to the late medieval world. The longbow and cannon gave common soldiers a new importance on the battlefield and undermined the value of armored knights on horseback. Although neither nobles nor commoners knew it then, feudal society was changing and medieval Europe was coming to an end. Knights and castles were doomed to disappear. Strong monarchs needed large armies, not feudal vassals, to fight their wars.

As Europe recovered from the Black Death, the population expanded, and manufacturing grew. These changes led to increased trade. Italian cities flourished as centers of trade and shipping. Europeans borrowed and developed new technologies. This recovery set the stage for further changes during the Renaissance, the Reformation, and the Age of Exploration.


  1. Recognize Cause and Effect What were three effects of the Black Death on late medieval Europe?
  2. Draw Conclusions What were some of the factors that allowed the Black Death to spread so quickly and with such deadly results?
  3. Draw Inference How did the second Great Schism affect Church authority and power and contribute to the end of medieval Europe?
  4. Cause and Effect How did Joan of Arc's execution affect the French forces?
  5. Compare Compare the effects of the Hundred Years' War on France and England.

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Table of Contents

World History Topic 1 Origins of Civilization (Prehistory–300 B.C.) Topic 2 The Ancient Middle East and Egypt (3200 B.C.–500 B.C.) Topic 3 Ancient India and China (2600 B.C.–A.D. 550) Topic 4 The Americas (Prehistory–A.D. 1570) Topic 5 Ancient Greece (1750 B.C.–133 B.C.) Topic 6 Ancient Rome and the Origins of Christianity (509 B.C.-A.D. 476) Topic 7 Medieval Christian Europe (330–1450) Topic 8 The Muslim World and Africa (730 B.C.-A.D. 1500) Topic 9 Civilizations of Asia (500–1650) Topic 10 The Renaissance and Reformation (1300–1650) Topic 11 New Global Connections (1415–1796) Topic 12 Absolutism and Revolution Topic 13 The Industrial Revolution Topic 14 Nationalism and the Spread of Democracy (1790–1914) Topic 15 The Age of Imperialism (1800–1914) Topic 16 World War I and the Russian Revolution (1914–1924) Topic 17 The World Between the Wars (1910–1939) Topic 18 World War II (1930–1945) Topic 19 The Cold War Era (1945–1991) Topic 20 New Nations Emerge (1945–Present) Topic 21 The World Today (1980-Present) United States Constitution Primary Sources 21st Century Skills Atlas Glossary Index Acknowledgments