Topic 6 Assessment

Comparing Structures of Government
Two Consuls Dictator
  • annually elected
  • held equal power
  • appointed in times of emergency
  • held office for 6 months only


  • inherited power
  • served for life
  • if served well, was worshipped as a god after death
Senate Popular Assemblies
  • issued advisory decrees to magistrates and people
  • in practice, held enormous power
  • had about 300 members
  • two assemblies: centuriate (miltary), tribal (nonmilitary)
  • elected magistrates, held legislative power, made key decisions


  • issued binding decrees, acted as a high court, elected magistrates
  • in practice, held little power as compared to the emperor
  • had about 600 members
  1. Identify the Characteristics of Political Systems Write a paragraph identifying the characteristics of the political systems of both the Roman republic and the Roman empire, and compare their government structures. Consider primary differences in the structures, civic participation by nobles and plebeians, and weaknesses that led to the fall of the republic.
  2. Describe Major Effects of Events Write a paragraph describing several effects of the transition from the Roman republic to the Roman empire, and answer the following questions: What consequences did conquests bring to the Roman republic? What role did the Gracchus brothers play in the Roman republic? After the Gracchus brothers, what events contributed to the decline of the republic?
  3. Describe the Responsibilities of Citizens and Noncitizens Write a paragraph that describes the responsibilities of citizens and noncitizens in civic participation in the Roman republic. Consider the concept of res publica; civic participants in the senate, consuls, and tribunes; gradual rights for plebeians; and the status of noncitizens.
  4. Describe Central Ideas and Major Religious/Philosophical Influences Write a paragraph that describes the central ideas and major religious influences of Christianity. What beliefs was Christianity based on? How were Christian beliefs different from Judaism? How was Christianity tolerated and what was its influence?
  5. Describe a Major Cultural Influence Write and deliver a speech that describes how the Roman belief in many gods and goddesses was a major cultural influence. Research examples of art, photos, or museum exhibits to enhance your speech. Consider the reasons for worship of multiple gods and goddesses, examples of Roman deities, and how this worship created a sense of community. Explain why Romans still tolerated religious diversity.
  6. Summarize the Development Use the information from the lessons in this topic to summarize the development of the rule of law from ancient Rome to modern times. Consider the importance of the Roman rule of law and justice, some legal principles, and its legacy.
  7. Identify the Influence of Ideas Write a newspaper article about a criminal trial (either one you know about or one you make up) identifying how the idea of “innocent until proven guilty” is used. Consider the meaning of “innocent until proven guilty,” what a person could be accused of, what might be used to prove a person guilty of the crime, and what might prove a person's innocence.
  8. Explain the Development Write a paragraph that explains the development of democratic-repbulican government and Judeo-Christian beliefs about this type of government. Include the influence of just treatment of individuals, the influence of equality before the law, basic Roman legal principles, and ideas from Rome's republican form of government.
  9. Analyze Examples Write a paragraph analyzing the types of art that Romans created and how this art reflects the history of Roman culture. Include answers to the following questions: Which art adaptations were mainly used by the Romans? What types of new art styles did the Romans develop? What types of artwork did wealthy Romans typically have?

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Table of Contents

World History Topic 1 Origins of Civilization (Prehistory–300 B.C.) Topic 2 The Ancient Middle East and Egypt (3200 B.C.–500 B.C.) Topic 3 Ancient India and China (2600 B.C.–A.D. 550) Topic 4 The Americas (Prehistory–A.D. 1570) Topic 5 Ancient Greece (1750 B.C.–133 B.C.) Topic 6 Ancient Rome and the Origins of Christianity (509 B.C.-A.D. 476) Topic 7 Medieval Christian Europe (330–1450) Topic 8 The Muslim World and Africa (730 B.C.-A.D. 1500) Topic 9 Civilizations of Asia (500–1650) Topic 10 The Renaissance and Reformation (1300–1650) Topic 11 New Global Connections (1415–1796) Topic 12 Absolutism and Revolution Topic 13 The Industrial Revolution Topic 14 Nationalism and the Spread of Democracy (1790–1914) Topic 15 The Age of Imperialism (1800–1914) Topic 16 World War I and the Russian Revolution (1914–1924) Topic 17 The World Between the Wars (1910–1939) Topic 18 World War II (1930–1945) Topic 19 The Cold War Era (1945–1991) Topic 20 New Nations Emerge (1945–Present) Topic 21 The World Today (1980-Present) United States Constitution Primary Sources 21st Century Skills Atlas Glossary Index Acknowledgments