Enduring Understandings

  • Rome was founded as a republic, which served as a model for later governments, including the United States.
  • As Roman power grew, society became more unequal and the republic became an empire.
  • During the Pax Romana, many fundamental ideas and institutions of Western civilization originated in Rome.
  • Political violence and foreign invasions led to the fall of the Western Roman empire, while the eastern Byzantine empire survived.
  • The Romans adapted Greek cultural achievements and Roman law influenced many modern legal systems.
  • Jesus and his disciples founded Christianity and spread its message to many people.
Video screenshot with a play button centered over a sketch of an ancient Roman man wearing a crown of laurels, and a toga, holding out his hand.

Watch the My Story Video

to learn more about Augustus and the Pax Romana.

End ofPage 157

Table of Contents

World History Topic 1 Origins of Civilization (Prehistory–300 B.C.) Topic 2 The Ancient Middle East and Egypt (3200 B.C.–500 B.C.) Topic 3 Ancient India and China (2600 B.C.–A.D. 550) Topic 4 The Americas (Prehistory–A.D. 1570) Topic 5 Ancient Greece (1750 B.C.–133 B.C.) Topic 6 Ancient Rome and the Origins of Christianity (509 B.C.-A.D. 476) Topic 7 Medieval Christian Europe (330–1450) Topic 8 The Muslim World and Africa (730 B.C.-A.D. 1500) Topic 9 Civilizations of Asia (500–1650) Topic 10 The Renaissance and Reformation (1300–1650) Topic 11 New Global Connections (1415–1796) Topic 12 Absolutism and Revolution Topic 13 The Industrial Revolution Topic 14 Nationalism and the Spread of Democracy (1790–1914) Topic 15 The Age of Imperialism (1800–1914) Topic 16 World War I and the Russian Revolution (1914–1924) Topic 17 The World Between the Wars (1910–1939) Topic 18 World War II (1930–1945) Topic 19 The Cold War Era (1945–1991) Topic 20 New Nations Emerge (1945–Present) Topic 21 The World Today (1980-Present) United States Constitution Primary Sources 21st Century Skills Atlas Glossary Index Acknowledgments