Enduring Understandings

  • Greek city-states experimented with different forms of government.
  • Democracy developed in Athens, where citizens participated in lawmaking and in the courts.
  • Greek city-states cooperated to defeat a threat from the Persian empire, but rivalry between Athens and Sparta led to a series of wars that weakened all of Greece.
  • The ancient Greeks pioneered scientific and medical discoveries, and they made important contributions in philosophy, history, and the arts.
  • Alexander the Great conquered an empire stretching from Egypt to India, helping to spread Greek culture and learning across a wide area.
Video screenshot with play button centered over an illustration of warriors in battle on horseback with helmets, spears and shields.

Watch the My Story Video

to learn about Pericles and the golden age of Athens.


End ofPage 125

Table of Contents

World History Topic 1 Origins of Civilization (Prehistory–300 B.C.) Topic 2 The Ancient Middle East and Egypt (3200 B.C.–500 B.C.) Topic 3 Ancient India and China (2600 B.C.–A.D. 550) Topic 4 The Americas (Prehistory–A.D. 1570) Topic 5 Ancient Greece (1750 B.C.–133 B.C.) Topic 6 Ancient Rome and the Origins of Christianity (509 B.C.-A.D. 476) Topic 7 Medieval Christian Europe (330–1450) Topic 8 The Muslim World and Africa (730 B.C.-A.D. 1500) Topic 9 Civilizations of Asia (500–1650) Topic 10 The Renaissance and Reformation (1300–1650) Topic 11 New Global Connections (1415–1796) Topic 12 Absolutism and Revolution Topic 13 The Industrial Revolution Topic 14 Nationalism and the Spread of Democracy (1790–1914) Topic 15 The Age of Imperialism (1800–1914) Topic 16 World War I and the Russian Revolution (1914–1924) Topic 17 The World Between the Wars (1910–1939) Topic 18 World War II (1930–1945) Topic 19 The Cold War Era (1945–1991) Topic 20 New Nations Emerge (1945–Present) Topic 21 The World Today (1980-Present) United States Constitution Primary Sources 21st Century Skills Atlas Glossary Index Acknowledgments