• tribute payment that conquered peoples may be forced to pay their conquerors

  • Trojan War in Greek epic poems and myths, a ten-year war between Mycenae and the city of Troy in Asia Minor

  • troubadour a wandering poet or singer of medieval Europe

  • Truman Doctrine United States policy, established in 1947, of trying to contain the spread of communism

  • tsar title of the ruler of the Russian empire

  • tsunami very large, damaging wave caused by an earthquake or very strong wind

  • turnpike private road built by entrepreneurs who charged a toll to travelers who used it

  • Tutsis the main minority group in Rwanda and Burundi

  • Twenty-One Demands list of demands given to China by Japan in 1915 that would have made China a protectorate of Japan

  • tyrant in ancient Greece, ruler who gained power by force


  • U-boat German submarine

  • ultimatum final set of demands

  • ultranationalist extreme nationalist

  • Umayyads members of the Sunni dynasty of caliphs that ruled a Muslim empire from 661 to 750

  • United Nations international organization established after World War II with the goal of maintaining peace and cooperation in the international community

  • universal manhood suffrage right of all adult men to vote

  • untouchable in India, a member of the lowest caste

  • urban renewal the process of fixing up the poor areas of a city

  • urbanization movement of people from rural areas to cities

  • utilitarianism idea that the goal of society should be to bring about the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people

  • utopian idealistic or visionary, usually used to describe a perfect society


  • V-E Day Victory in Europe Day, May 8, 1945, the day the Allies won WWII in Europe

  • Valley of Mexico valley in Mexico in which the numerous Mesoamerican civilizations, including the Aztecs, arose

  • vanguard group of elite leaders

  • vassal in medieval Europe, a lord who was granted land in exchange for service and loyalty to a greater lord

  • Vedas a collection of prayers, hymns, and other religious teachings developed in ancient India beginning around 1500 B.C.

  • veneration special regard

  • vernacular everyday language of ordinary people

  • Versailles royal French residence and seat of government established by King Louis XIV

  • veto block a government action

  • viceroy representative who ruled one of Spain's provinces in the Americas in the king's name; one who governed in India in the name of the British monarch

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Table of Contents

World History Topic 1 Origins of Civilization (Prehistory–300 B.C.) Topic 2 The Ancient Middle East and Egypt (3200 B.C.–500 B.C.) Topic 3 Ancient India and China (2600 B.C.–A.D. 550) Topic 4 The Americas (Prehistory–A.D. 1570) Topic 5 Ancient Greece (1750 B.C.–133 B.C.) Topic 6 Ancient Rome and the Origins of Christianity (509 B.C.-A.D. 476) Topic 7 Medieval Christian Europe (330–1450) Topic 8 The Muslim World and Africa (730 B.C.-A.D. 1500) Topic 9 Civilizations of Asia (500–1650) Topic 10 The Renaissance and Reformation (1300–1650) Topic 11 New Global Connections (1415–1796) Topic 12 Absolutism and Revolution Topic 13 The Industrial Revolution Topic 14 Nationalism and the Spread of Democracy (1790–1914) Topic 15 The Age of Imperialism (1800–1914) Topic 16 World War I and the Russian Revolution (1914–1924) Topic 17 The World Between the Wars (1910–1939) Topic 18 World War II (1930–1945) Topic 19 The Cold War Era (1945–1991) Topic 20 New Nations Emerge (1945–Present) Topic 21 The World Today (1980-Present) United States Constitution Primary Sources 21st Century Skills Atlas Glossary Index Acknowledgments