• Stamp Act law passed in 1765 by the British Parliament that imposed taxes on items such as newspapers and pamphlets in the American colonies; repealed in 1766

  • standard of living measures the quality and availability of necessities and comforts in a society

  • stela in the ancient world, a tall, commemorative monument that was often decorated

  • steppe sparse, dry, treeless grassland

  • stipend a fixed salary given to public office holders

  • stock shares in a company

  • strait narrow water passage

  • stupa large domelike Buddhist shrine

  • subcontinent large landmass that juts out from a continent

  • suburbanization the movement to built-up areas outside of central cities

  • Sudetenland a region of western Czechoslovakia

  • Suez Canal a canal linking the Red Sea and Indian Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea, which also links Europe to Asia and East Africa

  • suffrage right to vote

  • Sufis Muslim mystics who seek communion with God through meditation, fasting, and other rituals

  • sultan Muslim ruler

  • Sumer site of the world's first civilization, located in southeastern Mesopotamia

  • Sunni a member of one of the largest Muslim sects; Sunnis believe that inspiration came from the example of Muhammad as recorded by his early followers

  • superpower a nation stronger than other powerful nations

  • surplus an amount that is more than needed, excess

  • surrealism artistic movement that attempts to portray the workings of the unconscious mind

  • sustainability the ability to meet the needs of the present without compromising the needs of future generations

  • sustainable development development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs

  • Swahili an East African culture that emerged about 1000 A.D.; also a Bantu-based language, blending Arabic words and written in Arabic script


  • Taiping Rebellion peasant revolt in China

  • Taliban Islamic fundamentalist faction that ruled Afghanistan for nearly ten years until ousted by the United States in 2002

  • Taj Mahal a tomb built by Shah Jahan for his wife

  • Tang dynasty Chinese dynasty from 618 to 907

  • tariff tax on imported goods

  • technology the skills and tools people use to meet their basic needs

  • Tehran capital of the Qajar dynasty and presentday Iran

  • temperance movement campaign to limit or ban the use of alcoholic beverages

  • tenant farmer someone who would pay rent to a lord to farm part of the lord's land

  • tenement multistory building divided into crowded apartments

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Table of Contents

World History Topic 1 Origins of Civilization (Prehistory–300 B.C.) Topic 2 The Ancient Middle East and Egypt (3200 B.C.–500 B.C.) Topic 3 Ancient India and China (2600 B.C.–A.D. 550) Topic 4 The Americas (Prehistory–A.D. 1570) Topic 5 Ancient Greece (1750 B.C.–133 B.C.) Topic 6 Ancient Rome and the Origins of Christianity (509 B.C.-A.D. 476) Topic 7 Medieval Christian Europe (330–1450) Topic 8 The Muslim World and Africa (730 B.C.-A.D. 1500) Topic 9 Civilizations of Asia (500–1650) Topic 10 The Renaissance and Reformation (1300–1650) Topic 11 New Global Connections (1415–1796) Topic 12 Absolutism and Revolution Topic 13 The Industrial Revolution Topic 14 Nationalism and the Spread of Democracy (1790–1914) Topic 15 The Age of Imperialism (1800–1914) Topic 16 World War I and the Russian Revolution (1914–1924) Topic 17 The World Between the Wars (1910–1939) Topic 18 World War II (1930–1945) Topic 19 The Cold War Era (1945–1991) Topic 20 New Nations Emerge (1945–Present) Topic 21 The World Today (1980-Present) United States Constitution Primary Sources 21st Century Skills Atlas Glossary Index Acknowledgments