• Pueblo Bonito the largest Anasazi pueblo, built in New Mexico in the A.D. 900s

  • Punjab state in northwestern India with a largely Sikh population

  • purdah isolation of women in separate quarters

  • Puritans members of an English Protestant group who wanted to “purify” the Church of England by making it more simple and more morally strict

  • Pusan Perimeter a defensive line around the city of Pusan, in the southeast corner of Korea, held by South Korean and United Nations forces in 1950 during the Korean War; marks the farthest advance of North Korean forces

  • putting-out system a system developed in the 18th century in which tasks were distributed to individuals who completed the work in their own homes; also known as cottage industry


  • Qajars members of the dynasty that ruled present-day Iran from the late 1700s until 1925

  • Qing dynasty dynasty established by the Manchus in the mid 1600s and lasted until the early 1900s; China's last dynasty

  • Quran the holy book of Islam

  • quipu knotted strings used by Inca officials for record-keeping


  • racism belief that one racial group is superior to another

  • radicals those who favor extreme changes

  • rajah in ancient India, the elected warrior chief of an Aryan tribe

  • realism 19th-century artistic movement whose aim was to represent the world as it is

  • Realpolitik realistic politics based on the needs of the state

  • recession period of reduced economic activity

  • Reconquista during the 1400s, the campaign by European Christians to drive the Muslims from present-day Spain

  • refugee a person who flees from home or country to seek refuge elsewhere, often because of political upheaval or famine

  • regionalism loyalty to a local area

  • Reich German empire

  • Reign of Terror time period during the French Revolution from September 1793 to July 1794 when people in France were arrested for not supporting the revolution and many were executed

  • reincarnation in Hindu belief, the rebirth of the soul in another bodily form

  • reparation payment for war damage, or damage caused by imprisonment

  • repeal cancel

  • republic system of government in which officials are chosen by the people

  • revenue money taken in through taxes

  • rhetoric art of skillful speaking

  • rococo personal, elegant style of art and architecture made popular during the mid-1700s that featured designs with the shapes of leaves, shells, and flowers

  • romanticism 19th-century artistic movement that appealed to emotion rather than reason

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Table of Contents

World History Topic 1 Origins of Civilization (Prehistory–300 B.C.) Topic 2 The Ancient Middle East and Egypt (3200 B.C.–500 B.C.) Topic 3 Ancient India and China (2600 B.C.–A.D. 550) Topic 4 The Americas (Prehistory–A.D. 1570) Topic 5 Ancient Greece (1750 B.C.–133 B.C.) Topic 6 Ancient Rome and the Origins of Christianity (509 B.C.-A.D. 476) Topic 7 Medieval Christian Europe (330–1450) Topic 8 The Muslim World and Africa (730 B.C.-A.D. 1500) Topic 9 Civilizations of Asia (500–1650) Topic 10 The Renaissance and Reformation (1300–1650) Topic 11 New Global Connections (1415–1796) Topic 12 Absolutism and Revolution Topic 13 The Industrial Revolution Topic 14 Nationalism and the Spread of Democracy (1790–1914) Topic 15 The Age of Imperialism (1800–1914) Topic 16 World War I and the Russian Revolution (1914–1924) Topic 17 The World Between the Wars (1910–1939) Topic 18 World War II (1930–1945) Topic 19 The Cold War Era (1945–1991) Topic 20 New Nations Emerge (1945–Present) Topic 21 The World Today (1980-Present) United States Constitution Primary Sources 21st Century Skills Atlas Glossary Index Acknowledgments