• Pacific Rim vast region of nations, including countries in Southeast Asia, East Asia, and the Americas, that border the Pacific Ocean

  • pacifism opposition to all war

  • paddy rice field

  • pagoda multistoried Buddhist temple with eaves that curve up at the corners

  • Paleolithic Period the era of prehistory that lasted from at least 2 million B.C. to about 9000 B.C.; also called the Old Stone Age

  • Pan-Africanism movement which began in the 1920s that emphasized the unity and strength of Africans and people of African descent around the world

  • Panama Canal man-made waterway connecting the Atlantic and Pacific oceans

  • Pan-Arabism movement in which Arabs sought to unite all Arabs into one state

  • pandemic spread of a disease across a large area, country, continent, or the entire world

  • papal supremacy the claim of medieval popes that they had authority over all secular rulers

  • Parthenon the chief temple of the Greek goddess Athena on the Acropolis in Athens, Greece

  • papyrus plant used to make a paper-like writing material in ancient Egypt

  • Parliament the legislature of England, and later of Great Britain

  • parliamentary democracy a form of government in which the executive leaders are chosen by and responsible to the legislature, are also members of it

  • partition a division into pieces

  • partnership a group of merchants who joined together to finance a large-scale venture that would have been too costly for any individual trader

  • pasha provincial ruler in the Ottoman empire

  • paternalistic the system of governing a country as a father would a child

  • patriarch in the Roman and Byzantine empires, highest church official in a major city

  • patriarchal relating to a society in which men hold the greatest legal and moral authority

  • patrician in ancient Rome, member of the landholding upper class

  • patrilineal term for a family organization in which kinship ties are traced through the father

  • patron a person who provides financial support for the arts

  • Peace of Westphalia series of treaties that ended the Thirty Years' War

  • penal colony place where people convicted of crimes are sent

  • peninsulare member of the highest class in Spain's colonies in the Americas

  • peon worker forced to labor for a landlord in order to pay off a debt

  • peonage system by which workers owe labor to pay their debts

  • perestroika a Soviet policy of democratic and free-market reforms introduced by Mikhail Gorbachev in the late 1980s

  • personal computer a small computer meant to be used by individuals or small businesses

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Table of Contents

World History Topic 1 Origins of Civilization (Prehistory–300 B.C.) Topic 2 The Ancient Middle East and Egypt (3200 B.C.–500 B.C.) Topic 3 Ancient India and China (2600 B.C.–A.D. 550) Topic 4 The Americas (Prehistory–A.D. 1570) Topic 5 Ancient Greece (1750 B.C.–133 B.C.) Topic 6 Ancient Rome and the Origins of Christianity (509 B.C.-A.D. 476) Topic 7 Medieval Christian Europe (330–1450) Topic 8 The Muslim World and Africa (730 B.C.-A.D. 1500) Topic 9 Civilizations of Asia (500–1650) Topic 10 The Renaissance and Reformation (1300–1650) Topic 11 New Global Connections (1415–1796) Topic 12 Absolutism and Revolution Topic 13 The Industrial Revolution Topic 14 Nationalism and the Spread of Democracy (1790–1914) Topic 15 The Age of Imperialism (1800–1914) Topic 16 World War I and the Russian Revolution (1914–1924) Topic 17 The World Between the Wars (1910–1939) Topic 18 World War II (1930–1945) Topic 19 The Cold War Era (1945–1991) Topic 20 New Nations Emerge (1945–Present) Topic 21 The World Today (1980-Present) United States Constitution Primary Sources 21st Century Skills Atlas Glossary Index Acknowledgments