• nonalignment political and diplomatic independence from both Cold War powers

  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization a military alliance between several North Atlantic states to safeguard them from the presumed threat of the Soviet Union's communist bloc; countries from other regions later joined the alliance

  • Northern Ireland the northern portion of the island of Ireland, a part of the United Kingdom that has had a long religious conflict

  • Nubia ancient kingdom in northeastern Africa, also called Kush

  • nuclear family family unit consisting of parents and children

  • Nuremberg Germany city where Hitler staged Nazi rallies in the 1930s, and where Nazi war crimes trials were held after WWII

  • Nuremberg Laws laws approved by the Nazi Party in 1935, depriving Jews of German citizenship and taking some rights away from them


  • occupied territories areas controlled by a nation that are part of another entity; Palestinians use this term for certain lands Israel gained after the 1967 war.

  • Old Stone Age the era of prehistory that lasted from 2 million B.C. to about 9000 B.C.

  • Olduvai Gorge a gorge in Tanzania in which many hominid remains have been found

  • oligarchy government in which ruling power belongs to a few people

  • Olmecs the earliest American civilization, located along the Gulf Coast of Mexico from about 1500 B.C. to 400 B.C.

  • one-child policy a Chinese government policy limiting urban families to a single

  • Open Door Policy American approach to China around 1900, favoring open trade relations between China and other nations

  • Opium War war between Great Britain and China over restrictions to foreign trade

  • oracle bone in Shang China, animal bone or turtle shell used by priests to predict the future

  • Organization of American States a group formed in 1948 to promote democracy, economic cooperation, and human rights in the Americas

  • ostracism practice used in ancient Greece to banish or send away a public figure who threatened democracy

  • Ottomans Turkish-speaking nomadic people who migrated from Central Asia into northwestern Asia Minor

  • outpost a distant military station or a remote settlement

  • outsourcing the practice of sending work to companies in the developing world in order to save money or increase efficiency

  • overproduction condition in which production of goods exceeds the demand for them

  • Oyo empire Yoruba empire that arose in the 1600s in presentday Nigeria and dominated its neighbors for a hundred years

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Table of Contents

World History Topic 1 Origins of Civilization (Prehistory–300 B.C.) Topic 2 The Ancient Middle East and Egypt (3200 B.C.–500 B.C.) Topic 3 Ancient India and China (2600 B.C.–A.D. 550) Topic 4 The Americas (Prehistory–A.D. 1570) Topic 5 Ancient Greece (1750 B.C.–133 B.C.) Topic 6 Ancient Rome and the Origins of Christianity (509 B.C.-A.D. 476) Topic 7 Medieval Christian Europe (330–1450) Topic 8 The Muslim World and Africa (730 B.C.-A.D. 1500) Topic 9 Civilizations of Asia (500–1650) Topic 10 The Renaissance and Reformation (1300–1650) Topic 11 New Global Connections (1415–1796) Topic 12 Absolutism and Revolution Topic 13 The Industrial Revolution Topic 14 Nationalism and the Spread of Democracy (1790–1914) Topic 15 The Age of Imperialism (1800–1914) Topic 16 World War I and the Russian Revolution (1914–1924) Topic 17 The World Between the Wars (1910–1939) Topic 18 World War II (1930–1945) Topic 19 The Cold War Era (1945–1991) Topic 20 New Nations Emerge (1945–Present) Topic 21 The World Today (1980-Present) United States Constitution Primary Sources 21st Century Skills Atlas Glossary Index Acknowledgments