nonalignment political and diplomatic independence from both Cold War powers
North Atlantic Treaty Organization a military alliance between several North Atlantic states to safeguard them from the presumed threat of the Soviet Union's communist bloc; countries from other regions later joined the alliance
Northern Ireland the northern portion of the island of Ireland, a part of the United Kingdom that has had a long religious conflict
Nubia ancient kingdom in northeastern Africa, also called Kush
nuclear family family unit consisting of parents and children
Nuremberg Germany city where Hitler staged Nazi rallies in the 1930s, and where Nazi war crimes trials were held after WWII
Nuremberg Laws laws approved by the Nazi Party in 1935, depriving Jews of German citizenship and taking some rights away from them
occupied territories areas controlled by a nation that are part of another entity; Palestinians use this term for certain lands Israel gained after the 1967 war.
Old Stone Age the era of prehistory that lasted from 2 million B.C. to about 9000 B.C.
Olduvai Gorge a gorge in Tanzania in which many hominid remains have been found
oligarchy government in which ruling power belongs to a few people
Olmecs the earliest American civilization, located along the Gulf Coast of Mexico from about 1500 B.C. to 400 B.C.
one-child policy a Chinese government policy limiting urban families to a single
Open Door Policy American approach to China around 1900, favoring open trade relations between China and other nations
Opium War war between Great Britain and China over restrictions to foreign trade
oracle bone in Shang China, animal bone or turtle shell used by priests to predict the future
Organization of American States a group formed in 1948 to promote democracy, economic cooperation, and human rights in the Americas
ostracism practice used in ancient Greece to banish or send away a public figure who threatened democracy
Ottomans Turkish-speaking nomadic people who migrated from Central Asia into northwestern Asia Minor
outpost a distant military station or a remote settlement
outsourcing the practice of sending work to companies in the developing world in order to save money or increase efficiency
overproduction condition in which production of goods exceeds the demand for them
Oyo empire Yoruba empire that arose in the 1600s in presentday Nigeria and dominated its neighbors for a hundred years