• mujahedin Muslim religious warriors

  • mulatto in Spain's colonies in the Americas, person who was of African and European descent

  • multiethnic made up of several ethnic groups

  • multinational corporation company with branches in many countries

  • Mumbai a large city in India, also known as Bombay

  • mummification the preservation of dead bodies by embalming and wrapping them in cloth

  • mutiny revolt, especially of soldiers or sailors against their officers

  • mutual-aid societies self-help groups to aid sick or injured workers

  • mystic person who devotes his or her life to seeking direct communion with divine forces


  • Nagasaki a coastal city in southern Japan on the island of Kyushu; city in Japan where the second atomic bomb was dropped in August, 1945

  • Napoleonic Code body of French civil laws introduced in 1804; served as model for many nations' civil codes

  • nationalism a strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country

  • nationalization takeover of property or resources by the government

  • natural law rules of conduct discoverable by reason

  • natural right right that belongs to all humans from birth, such as life, liberty, and property

  • Nazca a culture that thrived in the Andean region from about 200 B.C. to A.D. 600

  • Nazi-Soviet Pact agreement between Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939 in which the two nations promised not to fight each other and to divide up land in Eastern Europe

  • négritude movement movement in which writers and artists of African descent expressed pride in their African heritage

  • Neolithic Period the final era of prehistory, which began about 9000 B.C.; also called the New Stone Age

  • Neolithic Revolution the period of time during which the introduction of agriculture led people to transition from nomadic to settled life

  • neutrality policy of supporting neither side in a war

  • Neutrality Acts a series of acts passed by the U.S. Congress from 1935 to 1939 that aimed to keep the U. S. from becoming involved in WWII

  • New Deal a massive package of economic and social programs established by FDR to help Americans during the Great Depression

  • New France French possessions in present-day Canada from the 1500s to 1763

  • New Stone Age the final era of prehistory, which began about 9000 B.C.; also called the Neolithic Period

  • nirvana in Buddhist belief, union with the universe and release from the cycle of rebirth

  • no-fly zones in Iraq, areas where the United States and its allies banned flights by Iraqi aircraft after the 1991 Gulf War

  • nomad a person who moves from place to place in search of food

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Table of Contents

World History Topic 1 Origins of Civilization (Prehistory–300 B.C.) Topic 2 The Ancient Middle East and Egypt (3200 B.C.–500 B.C.) Topic 3 Ancient India and China (2600 B.C.–A.D. 550) Topic 4 The Americas (Prehistory–A.D. 1570) Topic 5 Ancient Greece (1750 B.C.–133 B.C.) Topic 6 Ancient Rome and the Origins of Christianity (509 B.C.-A.D. 476) Topic 7 Medieval Christian Europe (330–1450) Topic 8 The Muslim World and Africa (730 B.C.-A.D. 1500) Topic 9 Civilizations of Asia (500–1650) Topic 10 The Renaissance and Reformation (1300–1650) Topic 11 New Global Connections (1415–1796) Topic 12 Absolutism and Revolution Topic 13 The Industrial Revolution Topic 14 Nationalism and the Spread of Democracy (1790–1914) Topic 15 The Age of Imperialism (1800–1914) Topic 16 World War I and the Russian Revolution (1914–1924) Topic 17 The World Between the Wars (1910–1939) Topic 18 World War II (1930–1945) Topic 19 The Cold War Era (1945–1991) Topic 20 New Nations Emerge (1945–Present) Topic 21 The World Today (1980-Present) United States Constitution Primary Sources 21st Century Skills Atlas Glossary Index Acknowledgments