M

  • Macao region of southeastern China made up of a peninsula and two islands, a Portuguese territory from the mid-1800s to 1999

  • Maginot Line massive fortifications built by the French along their border with Germany in the 1930s to protect against invasion

  • Magna Carta the Great Charter approved by King John of England in 1215; it limited royal power and established certain rights of English freemen

  • Magyars an ethnic group centered in present-day Hungary

  • Mahdi a Muslim savior of the faith

  • maize corn

  • Malacca a state and coastal city in SW Malaysia, was an early center of the spice trade

  • Mali medieval West African trading empire located in presentday Mali

  • Malindi a coastal town in SE Kenya

  • Manchester city in England; one of the leading industrial areas; example of an Industrial Revolution city; first major rail line linked Manchester to Liverpool in 1830

  • Manchuria historic province in northeastern China; rich in natural resources

  • Manchus people originally from Manchuria, north of China, who conquered the Ming dynasty and ruled China as the Qing dynasty from the mid-1600s to the early 1900s

  • mandate after World War I, a territory administered by a Western power

  • Manhattan Project code name for the project to build the first atomic bomb during WWII

  • Manifest Destiny American idea that the United States should stretch across the entire North American continent

  • manor during the Middle Ages in Europe, a lord's estate which included one or more villages and the surrounding lands

  • Maori indigenous people of New Zealand

  • March on Rome planned march of thousands of Fascist supporters to take control of Rome; in response Mussolini was given the legal right to control Italy

  • Marseilles French port city; troops marched to a patriotic song as they marched from this city, the song eventually became the French national anthem

  • Marshall Plan massive aid package offered by the U. S. to Europe to help countries rebuild after WWII

  • martyr person who suffers or dies for his or her beliefs

  • matrilineal term for a family organization in which kinship ties are traced through the mother

  • May Fourth Movement cultural movement in China that sought to reform China and make it stronger

  • means of production farms, factories, railways, and other large businesses that produce and distribute goods

  • Mecca a city in western Saudi Arabia; birthplace of Islam's prophet Muhammad and most holy city for Islamic people

  • medieval referring to the Middle Ages in Europe or the period of history between ancient and modern times

  • Medina a city in western Saudi Arabia; a city where Muhammad preached

  • Meiji Restoration in Japan, the reign of emperor Meiji from 1868 to 1912 which was marked by rapid modernization and industrialization

  • mercantilism policy by which a nation sought to export more than it imported in order to build its supply of gold and silver


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Table of Contents

World History Topic 1 Origins of Civilization (Prehistory–300 B.C.) Topic 2 The Ancient Middle East and Egypt (3200 B.C.–500 B.C.) Topic 3 Ancient India and China (2600 B.C.–A.D. 550) Topic 4 The Americas (Prehistory–A.D. 1570) Topic 5 Ancient Greece (1750 B.C.–133 B.C.) Topic 6 Ancient Rome and the Origins of Christianity (509 B.C.-A.D. 476) Topic 7 Medieval Christian Europe (330–1450) Topic 8 The Muslim World and Africa (730 B.C.-A.D. 1500) Topic 9 Civilizations of Asia (500–1650) Topic 10 The Renaissance and Reformation (1300–1650) Topic 11 New Global Connections (1415–1796) Topic 12 Absolutism and Revolution Topic 13 The Industrial Revolution Topic 14 Nationalism and the Spread of Democracy (1790–1914) Topic 15 The Age of Imperialism (1800–1914) Topic 16 World War I and the Russian Revolution (1914–1924) Topic 17 The World Between the Wars (1910–1939) Topic 18 World War II (1930–1945) Topic 19 The Cold War Era (1945–1991) Topic 20 New Nations Emerge (1945–Present) Topic 21 The World Today (1980-Present) United States Constitution Primary Sources 21st Century Skills Atlas Glossary Index Acknowledgments