• La Reforma an era of liberal reform in Mexico from 1855 to 1876

  • labor union workers' organization

  • laissez faire policy allowing business to operate with little or no government interference

  • land reform breakup of large agricultural holdings for redistribution among peasants

  • laser a high-energy light beam that can be used for many purposes including surgery, engineering, and scientific research

  • latifundia huge estates bought up by newly wealthy Roman citizens

  • lay investiture appointment of bishops by anyone who is not a member of the clergy

  • legion basic unit of the ancient Roman army, made up of about 5,000 soldiers

  • legislature lawmaking body

  • legitimacy principle by which monarchies that had been unseated by the French Revolution or Napoleon were restored

  • Lend-Lease Act act passed by the U. S. Congress in 1941 that allowed the president to sell or lend war supplies to any country whose defense was considered vital to the United States

  • levée morning ritual during which nobles would wait upon French king Louis XIV

  • libel knowing publication of false and damaging statements

  • liberation theology movement within the Catholic Church that urged the church to become a force for reform, social justice, and put an end to poverty

  • limited monarchy government in which a constitution or legislative body limits the monarch's powers

  • Line of Demarcation line set by the Treaty of Tordesillas dividing the non-European world into two zones, one controlled by Spain and the other by Portugal

  • lineage group claiming a common ancestor

  • literacy the ability to read and write

  • literacy rate percentage of people who can read and write

  • Liverpool city and one of the largest ports in England; first major rail line linked Liverpool to Manchester in 1830

  • loess fine windblown yellow soil

  • logic rational thinking

  • Long March epic march in which a group of Chinese Communists retreated from Guomindang forces by marching over 6,000 miles

  • longbow six-foot-long bow that could rapidly fire arrows with enough force to pierce most armor

  • Louisiana Purchase territory purchased by Thomas Jefferson from France in 1803

  • Luftwaffe German air force

  • Lusitania British liner torpedoed by a German submarine in May 1915

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Table of Contents

World History Topic 1 Origins of Civilization (Prehistory–300 B.C.) Topic 2 The Ancient Middle East and Egypt (3200 B.C.–500 B.C.) Topic 3 Ancient India and China (2600 B.C.–A.D. 550) Topic 4 The Americas (Prehistory–A.D. 1570) Topic 5 Ancient Greece (1750 B.C.–133 B.C.) Topic 6 Ancient Rome and the Origins of Christianity (509 B.C.-A.D. 476) Topic 7 Medieval Christian Europe (330–1450) Topic 8 The Muslim World and Africa (730 B.C.-A.D. 1500) Topic 9 Civilizations of Asia (500–1650) Topic 10 The Renaissance and Reformation (1300–1650) Topic 11 New Global Connections (1415–1796) Topic 12 Absolutism and Revolution Topic 13 The Industrial Revolution Topic 14 Nationalism and the Spread of Democracy (1790–1914) Topic 15 The Age of Imperialism (1800–1914) Topic 16 World War I and the Russian Revolution (1914–1924) Topic 17 The World Between the Wars (1910–1939) Topic 18 World War II (1930–1945) Topic 19 The Cold War Era (1945–1991) Topic 20 New Nations Emerge (1945–Present) Topic 21 The World Today (1980-Present) United States Constitution Primary Sources 21st Century Skills Atlas Glossary Index Acknowledgments