• Islamist a person who wants government policies to be based on the teachings of Islam

  • island-hopping during World War II, Allied strategy of recapturing some Japanese-held islands while bypassing others

  • Istanbul capital of the Ottoman empire; located in the northwest of present-day Turkey; formerly Constantinople

J

  • Jacobin member of a radical political club during the French Revolution

  • janizary elite force of the Ottoman army

  • Jericho the world's first village, established in the modern-day West Bank between 10,000 and 9000 B.C.

  • Jerusalem capital of the Jewish state of Judea in ancient times and capital of the modern State of Israel; city sacred to Jews, Muslims, and Christians

  • jihad in Islam, an effort in God's service

  • joint family family organization in which several generations share a common dwelling

  • journeyman a salaried worker employed by a guild master

  • jury legal group of people sworn to make a decision in a legal case

  • Justinian's Code collection of Roman laws organized by the Byzantine emperor Justinian and later serving as a model for the Catholic Church and medieval monarchs

K

  • Kaaba the most sacred temple of Islam, located at Mecca

  • kaiser emperor of Germany

  • kamikaze Japanese pilot who undertook a suicide mission

  • kana in the Japanese writing system, phonetic symbols representing syllables

  • karma in Hindu belief, all the actions that affect a person's fate in the next life

  • Kashmir a former princely state in the Himalayas, claimed by both India and Pakistan, which have fought wars over its control

  • Katanga a province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo with rich copper and diamond deposits that tried to gain independence from Congo in 1960

  • Kellogg-Briand Pact an international agreement, signed by almost every nation in 1928, to stop using war as a method of national policy

  • Khmer Rouge a political movement and a force of Cambodian communist guerrillas that gained power in Cambodia in 1975

  • kibbutz a collective farm in Israel

  • Kiev capital of medieval Russia and of presentday Ukraine

  • kiva large underground chamber that the Anasazi used for religious ceremonies and political meetings

  • knight a European noble who served as a mounted warrior

  • Knossos an ancient Minoan city on the island of Crete

  • Kolkata a large city in India, also known as Calcutta

  • Koryo dynasty Korean dynasty that ruled from 935 to 1392

  • Kosovo a province of Serbia with an Albanian ethnic majority that was the site of an ethnic conflict during the 1990s

  • kulak wealthy peasant in the Soviet Union in the 1930s

  • Kulturkampf Bismarck's “battle for civilization,” intended to make Catholics put loyalty to the state above their allegiance to the Church


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Table of Contents

World History Topic 1 Origins of Civilization (Prehistory–300 B.C.) Topic 2 The Ancient Middle East and Egypt (3200 B.C.–500 B.C.) Topic 3 Ancient India and China (2600 B.C.–A.D. 550) Topic 4 The Americas (Prehistory–A.D. 1570) Topic 5 Ancient Greece (1750 B.C.–133 B.C.) Topic 6 Ancient Rome and the Origins of Christianity (509 B.C.-A.D. 476) Topic 7 Medieval Christian Europe (330–1450) Topic 8 The Muslim World and Africa (730 B.C.-A.D. 1500) Topic 9 Civilizations of Asia (500–1650) Topic 10 The Renaissance and Reformation (1300–1650) Topic 11 New Global Connections (1415–1796) Topic 12 Absolutism and Revolution Topic 13 The Industrial Revolution Topic 14 Nationalism and the Spread of Democracy (1790–1914) Topic 15 The Age of Imperialism (1800–1914) Topic 16 World War I and the Russian Revolution (1914–1924) Topic 17 The World Between the Wars (1910–1939) Topic 18 World War II (1930–1945) Topic 19 The Cold War Era (1945–1991) Topic 20 New Nations Emerge (1945–Present) Topic 21 The World Today (1980-Present) United States Constitution Primary Sources 21st Century Skills Atlas Glossary Index Acknowledgments