• Holy Roman Empire empire of west central Europe from 962 to 1806, comprising present-day Germany and neighboring lands

  • home rule local self-government

  • homogeneous society society that has a common culture and language

  • Huari a culture that thrived in the Andean region from about A.D. 600–A.D. 1000

  • Huguenots French Protestants of the 1500s and 1600s

  • humanism an intellectual movement at the heart of the Renaissance that focused on education and the classics

  • humanities study of subjects such as grammar, rhetoric, poetry, and history, that were taught in ancient Greece and Rome

  • Huns a nomadic people of central Asia

  • Hutus the group that forms the majority in Rwanda and Burundi

  • hypothesis an unproved theory accepted for the purposes of explaining certain facts or to provide a basis for further investigation


  • icon holy image of Christ, Mary, or a saint venerated in the Eastern Orthodox Church

  • ideology system of thought and belief

  • illumination the artistic decoration of books and manuscripts

  • immunity natural protection, resistance

  • imperialism domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region

  • import substitution manufacturing goods locally to replace imports

  • impressionism school of painting of the late 1800s and early 1900s that tried to capture fleeting visual impressions

  • indemnity payment for losses in war

  • indigenous original or native to a country or region

  • indulgence in the Roman Catholic Church, pardon for sins committed during a person's lifetime

  • inflation economic cycle that involves a rapid rise in prices linked to a sharp increase in the amount of money available

  • Inquisition a Church court set up to try people accused of heresy

  • insurgents rebel forces

  • intendant official appointed by French king Louis XIV to govern the provinces, collect taxes, and recruit soldiers

  • interchangeable parts identical components that can be used in place of one another in manufacturing

  • interdependence mutual dependence of countries on goods, resources, labor, and knowledge from other parts of the world

  • interdict in the Roman Catholic Church, excommunication of an entire region, town, or kingdom

  • International Space Station an artificial structure built and maintained by a coalition of nations with the purpose of research

  • Internet a huge international computer network linking millions of users around the world

  • Inti the Inca sun god

  • intifada Palestinian Arab uprisings against the Israeli occupation

  • Iroquois League political alliance of five Iroquois groups, known as the Five Nations, in the late 1500s

  • Isfahan capital of Safavid empire during the 1600s; located in present-day Iran

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Table of Contents

World History Topic 1 Origins of Civilization (Prehistory–300 B.C.) Topic 2 The Ancient Middle East and Egypt (3200 B.C.–500 B.C.) Topic 3 Ancient India and China (2600 B.C.–A.D. 550) Topic 4 The Americas (Prehistory–A.D. 1570) Topic 5 Ancient Greece (1750 B.C.–133 B.C.) Topic 6 Ancient Rome and the Origins of Christianity (509 B.C.-A.D. 476) Topic 7 Medieval Christian Europe (330–1450) Topic 8 The Muslim World and Africa (730 B.C.-A.D. 1500) Topic 9 Civilizations of Asia (500–1650) Topic 10 The Renaissance and Reformation (1300–1650) Topic 11 New Global Connections (1415–1796) Topic 12 Absolutism and Revolution Topic 13 The Industrial Revolution Topic 14 Nationalism and the Spread of Democracy (1790–1914) Topic 15 The Age of Imperialism (1800–1914) Topic 16 World War I and the Russian Revolution (1914–1924) Topic 17 The World Between the Wars (1910–1939) Topic 18 World War II (1930–1945) Topic 19 The Cold War Era (1945–1991) Topic 20 New Nations Emerge (1945–Present) Topic 21 The World Today (1980-Present) United States Constitution Primary Sources 21st Century Skills Atlas Glossary Index Acknowledgments