• Great Zimbabwe powerful East African medieval trade center and city-state located in southeastern present-day Zimbabwe

  • Green Revolution the improved seeds, pesticides, mechanical equipment, and farming methods introduced in the developing world beginning in the 1950s

  • griot professional storyteller in early West Africa

  • gross domestic product the total value of all goods and services produced in a nation within a particular year

  • Guangzhou a coastal city in southeastern China, also known as Canton

  • guerrilla a soldier in a loosely organized force making surprise raids

  • guerrilla warfare fighting carried on through hit-and-run raids

  • guild in the Middle Ages, an association of merchants or artisans who cooperated to uphold standards of their trade and to protect their economic interests

  • guillotine device used during the Reign of Terror to execute thousands by beheading

  • Gulag in the Soviet Union, a system of forced labor camps in which millions of criminals and political prisoners were held under Stalin

  • Guomindang Nationalist party; active in China 1912 to 1949


  • habeas corpus principle that a person cannot be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime

  • hacienda a large plantation

  • hajj one of the Five Pillars of Islam, the pilgrimage to Mecca that all Muslims are expected to make at least once in their lifetime

  • hangul alphabet that uses symbols to represent the sounds of spoken Korean

  • Hapsburg empire Central European empire that lasted from the 1400s to the 1900s and at its height included the lands of the Holy Roman Empire and the Netherlands

  • Harappa large ancient city of the Indus civilization, located in present-day Pakistan

  • Harlem Renaissance an African American cultural movement in the 1920s and 1930s, centered in Harlem

  • hejab headscarves and loose-fitting, ankle-length garments meant to conceal the body

  • heliocentric based on the belief that the sun is the center of the universe

  • heresy religious belief that is contrary to the official teachings of a church

  • hierarchy system of ranking groups

  • hieroglyphics system of writing in which pictures called hieroglyphs represent objects, concepts, or sounds

  • hijra Muhammad's journey from Mecca to Medina in 622

  • Hiroshima city in Japan where the first atomic bomb was dropped in August 1945

  • historian a person who studies how people lived in the past

  • Holocaust the systematic genocide of about six million European Jews by the Nazis during World War II

  • Holy Land Jerusalem and other places in Palestine where Christians believe Jesus had lived and preached

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Table of Contents

World History Topic 1 Origins of Civilization (Prehistory–300 B.C.) Topic 2 The Ancient Middle East and Egypt (3200 B.C.–500 B.C.) Topic 3 Ancient India and China (2600 B.C.–A.D. 550) Topic 4 The Americas (Prehistory–A.D. 1570) Topic 5 Ancient Greece (1750 B.C.–133 B.C.) Topic 6 Ancient Rome and the Origins of Christianity (509 B.C.-A.D. 476) Topic 7 Medieval Christian Europe (330–1450) Topic 8 The Muslim World and Africa (730 B.C.-A.D. 1500) Topic 9 Civilizations of Asia (500–1650) Topic 10 The Renaissance and Reformation (1300–1650) Topic 11 New Global Connections (1415–1796) Topic 12 Absolutism and Revolution Topic 13 The Industrial Revolution Topic 14 Nationalism and the Spread of Democracy (1790–1914) Topic 15 The Age of Imperialism (1800–1914) Topic 16 World War I and the Russian Revolution (1914–1924) Topic 17 The World Between the Wars (1910–1939) Topic 18 World War II (1930–1945) Topic 19 The Cold War Era (1945–1991) Topic 20 New Nations Emerge (1945–Present) Topic 21 The World Today (1980-Present) United States Constitution Primary Sources 21st Century Skills Atlas Glossary Index Acknowledgments