• French Indochina Western name for the colonial holdings of France on mainland Southeast Asia; present-day Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia

  • fresco colorful painting completed on wet plaster

  • friar a medieval European monk who traveled from place to place preaching to the poor

  • fundamentalists religious leaders who call for a return to what they see as the fundamental, or basic, values of their faiths

G

  • general strike strike by workers in many different industries at the same time

  • genetic engineering manipulation of living organisms' chemical code in order to produce specific results

  • genetics a branch of biology dealing with heredity and variations among plants and animals

  • Geneva Swiss city-state which became a Calvinist theocracy in the 1500s; today a major city in Switzerland

  • genocide deliberate attempt to destroy an entire religious or ethnic group

  • gentry wealthy, landowning class

  • germ theory the theory that infectious diseases are caused by certain microbes

  • Gestapo secret police in Nazi Germany

  • Ghana early West African trading kingdom located in parts of present-day Mauritania and Mali

  • ghetto separate section of a city where members of a minority group are forced to live

  • glasnost “openness” in Russian; a Soviet policy of greater freedom of expression introduced by Mikhail Gorbachev in the late 1980s

  • global warming the rise of Earth's surface temperature over time

  • globalization the process by which national economies, politics, cultures, and societies become integrated with those of other nations around the world

  • Goa a state in western India; formerly a coastal city that was made the base of Portugal's Indian trade

  • golden age period of great cultural achievement

  • Golden Bull of 1222 charter that strictly limited royal power in Hungary

  • Golden Horde the Mongol armies that invaded Europe in 1237 and ruled Russia for over two centuries

  • Golden Temple the Sikh religion's holiest shrine

  • Good Friday Agreement an agreement to end the conflict in Northern Ireland signed in 1998 by Protestants and Catholics

  • Good Neighbor Policy policy in which American President Franklin Roosevelt promised that the United States would interfere less in Latin American affairs

  • Gothic style type of European architecture that developed in the Middle Ages, characterized by flying buttresses, ribbed vaulting, thin walls, and high roofs

  • gravity force that pulls objects in Earth's sphere to the center of Earth

  • Great Depression a painful time of global economic collapse, starting in 1929 and lasting until about 1939

  • Great Leap Forward a Chinese Communist program from 1958 to 1960 to boost farm and industrial output that failed miserably

  • Great Schism the official split between the Roman Catholic and Byzantine churches that occurred in 1054


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Table of Contents

World History Topic 1 Origins of Civilization (Prehistory–300 B.C.) Topic 2 The Ancient Middle East and Egypt (3200 B.C.–500 B.C.) Topic 3 Ancient India and China (2600 B.C.–A.D. 550) Topic 4 The Americas (Prehistory–A.D. 1570) Topic 5 Ancient Greece (1750 B.C.–133 B.C.) Topic 6 Ancient Rome and the Origins of Christianity (509 B.C.-A.D. 476) Topic 7 Medieval Christian Europe (330–1450) Topic 8 The Muslim World and Africa (730 B.C.-A.D. 1500) Topic 9 Civilizations of Asia (500–1650) Topic 10 The Renaissance and Reformation (1300–1650) Topic 11 New Global Connections (1415–1796) Topic 12 Absolutism and Revolution Topic 13 The Industrial Revolution Topic 14 Nationalism and the Spread of Democracy (1790–1914) Topic 15 The Age of Imperialism (1800–1914) Topic 16 World War I and the Russian Revolution (1914–1924) Topic 17 The World Between the Wars (1910–1939) Topic 18 World War II (1930–1945) Topic 19 The Cold War Era (1945–1991) Topic 20 New Nations Emerge (1945–Present) Topic 21 The World Today (1980-Present) United States Constitution Primary Sources 21st Century Skills Atlas Glossary Index Acknowledgments