• European Community an international organization dedicated to establishing free trade among its European member nations

  • European Union an international organization made up of over two dozen European nations, with a common currency and common policies and laws

  • excommunication exclusion from the Roman Catholic Church as a penalty for refusing to obey Church law

  • expansionism policy of increasing the amount of territory a government holds

  • extraterritoriality right of foreigners to be protected by the laws of their own nation


  • faction dissenting group of people

  • famine a severe shortage of food in which large numbers of people starve

  • fascism any centralized, authoritarian government system that is not communist whose policies glorify the state over the individual and are destructive to basic human rights

  • federal republic government in which power is divided between the national, or federal, government and the states

  • Federal Reserve central banking system of the United States, which regulates banks

  • Fertile Crescent region of the Middle East in which civilizations first arose

  • feudal contract exchange of pledges between lords and vassals

  • feudalism loosely organized system of government in which local lords governed their own lands but owed military service and other support to a greater lord

  • fief in medieval Europe, an estate granted by a lord to a vassal in exchange for service and loyalty

  • filial piety respect for parents

  • finance the management of money matters including the circulation of money, loans, investments, and banking

  • First Sino-Japanese War conflict between China and Japan in 1894–1895 over control of Korea

  • Flanders a region that included parts of presentday northern France, Belgium, and the Netherlands; was an important industrial and financial center of northern Europe during the Middle Ages and Renaissance

  • flapper in the United States and Europe in the 1920s, a rebellious young woman

  • Florence a city in the Tuscany region of northern Italy that was the center of the Italian Renaissance

  • flying buttresses stone supports on the outside of a building that allowed builders to construct higher, thinner walls that contained large stained-glass windows

  • Four Noble Truths as taught by the Buddha, the four basic beliefs that form the foundation of Buddhism

  • Fourteen Points list of terms for resolving WWI and future wars outlined by American President Woodrow Wilson in January 1918

  • Franks a Germanic tribe that conquered presentday France and neighboring lands in the 400s

  • free trade trade between countries without quotas, tariffs, or other restrictions

  • French and Indian War war between Britain and France in the Americas that happened from 1754 to 1763; it was part of a global war called the Seven Years' War

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Table of Contents

World History Topic 1 Origins of Civilization (Prehistory–300 B.C.) Topic 2 The Ancient Middle East and Egypt (3200 B.C.–500 B.C.) Topic 3 Ancient India and China (2600 B.C.–A.D. 550) Topic 4 The Americas (Prehistory–A.D. 1570) Topic 5 Ancient Greece (1750 B.C.–133 B.C.) Topic 6 Ancient Rome and the Origins of Christianity (509 B.C.-A.D. 476) Topic 7 Medieval Christian Europe (330–1450) Topic 8 The Muslim World and Africa (730 B.C.-A.D. 1500) Topic 9 Civilizations of Asia (500–1650) Topic 10 The Renaissance and Reformation (1300–1650) Topic 11 New Global Connections (1415–1796) Topic 12 Absolutism and Revolution Topic 13 The Industrial Revolution Topic 14 Nationalism and the Spread of Democracy (1790–1914) Topic 15 The Age of Imperialism (1800–1914) Topic 16 World War I and the Russian Revolution (1914–1924) Topic 17 The World Between the Wars (1910–1939) Topic 18 World War II (1930–1945) Topic 19 The Cold War Era (1945–1991) Topic 20 New Nations Emerge (1945–Present) Topic 21 The World Today (1980-Present) United States Constitution Primary Sources 21st Century Skills Atlas Glossary Index Acknowledgments