• earthwork an embankment or other construction made of earth

  • East Timor a former Portuguese colony, seized by Indonesia, that gained independence in 2002

  • economic nationalism an emphasis on domestic control and protection of the economy

  • Edict of Nantes law issued by French king Henry IV in 1598 giving more religious freedom to French Protestants

  • Eightfold Path as taught by the Buddha, the path one must follow to achieve nirvana

  • elector one of seven German princes who would choose the Holy Roman emperor

  • electorate body of people allowed to vote

  • elite upper class

  • emancipation granting of freedom to serfs or slaves

  • emigration movement away from one's homeland

  • émigré person who flees his or her country for political reasons

  • empire a group of states or territories controlled by one ruler

  • enclosure the process of taking over and consolidating land formerly shared by peasant farmers

  • encomienda right the Spanish government granted to its American colonists to demand labor or tribute from Native Americans

  • endangered species species threatened with extinction

  • engineering application of science and mathematics to develop useful structures and machines

  • English Bill of Rights series of acts passed by the English Parliament in 1689 that limited the rights of the monarchy and ensured the superiority of Parliament

  • engraving art form in which an artist etches a design on a metal plate with acid and then uses the plate to make multiple prints

  • enlightened despot absolute ruler who used his or her power to bring about political and social change

  • entente nonbinding agreement to follow common policies

  • enterprise a business organization in such areas as shipping, mining, railroads, or factories

  • entrepreneur person who assumes financial risk in the hope of making a profit

  • Epic of Gilgamesh Mesopotamian narrative poem that was first told in Sumer

  • epidemic outbreak of a rapidly spreading disease

  • erosion the wearing away of land

  • estate social class

  • Estates-General legislative body made up of representatives of the three estates in prerevolutionary France

  • ethics moral standards of behavior

  • Ethiopia ancient Greek term for Axumite kingdom; presentday country in East Africa

  • ethnic cleansing the killing or forcible removal of people of different ethnicities from an area by aggressors so that only the ethnic group of the aggressors remains

  • ethnic group large group of people who share the same language and cultural heritage

  • Etruscans a people who inhabited early Italy

  • euro common currency used by member nations of the European Union

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Table of Contents

World History Topic 1 Origins of Civilization (Prehistory–300 B.C.) Topic 2 The Ancient Middle East and Egypt (3200 B.C.–500 B.C.) Topic 3 Ancient India and China (2600 B.C.–A.D. 550) Topic 4 The Americas (Prehistory–A.D. 1570) Topic 5 Ancient Greece (1750 B.C.–133 B.C.) Topic 6 Ancient Rome and the Origins of Christianity (509 B.C.-A.D. 476) Topic 7 Medieval Christian Europe (330–1450) Topic 8 The Muslim World and Africa (730 B.C.-A.D. 1500) Topic 9 Civilizations of Asia (500–1650) Topic 10 The Renaissance and Reformation (1300–1650) Topic 11 New Global Connections (1415–1796) Topic 12 Absolutism and Revolution Topic 13 The Industrial Revolution Topic 14 Nationalism and the Spread of Democracy (1790–1914) Topic 15 The Age of Imperialism (1800–1914) Topic 16 World War I and the Russian Revolution (1914–1924) Topic 17 The World Between the Wars (1910–1939) Topic 18 World War II (1930–1945) Topic 19 The Cold War Era (1945–1991) Topic 20 New Nations Emerge (1945–Present) Topic 21 The World Today (1980-Present) United States Constitution Primary Sources 21st Century Skills Atlas Glossary Index Acknowledgments