• corporation business owned by many investors who buy shares of stock and risk only the amount of their investment

  • Council of Trent a group of Catholic leaders that met between 1545 and 1563 to respond to Protestant challenges and direct the future of the Catholic Church

  • coup d'état the forcible overthrow of a government

  • covenant a binding agreement; specifically, in the Jewish tradition, the binding agreement God made with Abraham

  • creole person in Spain's colonies in the Americas who was an American-born descendent of Spanish settlers

  • Crimean War war fought mainly on the Crimean Peninsula between the Russians and the British, French, and Turks from 1853–1856

  • criminal law branch of law that deals with offenses against others

  • Crusades a series of wars from the 1000s through 1200s in which European Christians tried to win control of the Holy Land from Muslims

  • cult of domesticity idealization of women and the home

  • cultural diffusion the spread of ideas, customs, and technologies from one people to another

  • cultural nationalism pride in the culture of one's country

  • Cultural Revolution a Chinese Communist program in the late 1960s to purge China of nonrevolutionary tendencies that caused economic and social damage

  • culture the way of life of a society, which is handed down from one generation to the next by learning and experience

  • cuneiform in the ancient Middle East, a system of writing that used wedge-shaped marks

  • Cuzco capital city of the Inca empire

  • Cyrillic relating to the Slavic alphabet derived from the Greek and traditionally attributed to St. Cyril; in modified form still used in modern Slavic languages


  • dada artistic movement in which artists rejected tradition and produced works that often shocked their viewers

  • dalits outcastes or members of India's lowest caste

  • Dardanelles vital strait connecting the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea in present-day Turkey

  • Darfur a region in western Sudan where ethnic conflict threatened to lead to genocide

  • D-Day code name for June 6, 1944, the day that Allied forces invaded France during WWII

  • decimal system system of numbers based on 10

  • decipher to figure out the meaning of

  • default fail to make payments

  • deficit gap between what a government spends and what it takes in through taxes and other sources

  • deficit spending situation in which a government spends more money than it takes in

  • deforestation the destruction of forest land

  • Delhi the third-largest city in India; capital of medieval India

  • delta triangular area of marshland formed by deposits of silt at the mouth of some rivers

  • demilitarized zone a thin band of territory across the Korean peninsula separating North Korean forces from South Korean forces; established by the armistice of 1953

  • democracy government in which the people hold ruling power

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Table of Contents

World History Topic 1 Origins of Civilization (Prehistory–300 B.C.) Topic 2 The Ancient Middle East and Egypt (3200 B.C.–500 B.C.) Topic 3 Ancient India and China (2600 B.C.–A.D. 550) Topic 4 The Americas (Prehistory–A.D. 1570) Topic 5 Ancient Greece (1750 B.C.–133 B.C.) Topic 6 Ancient Rome and the Origins of Christianity (509 B.C.-A.D. 476) Topic 7 Medieval Christian Europe (330–1450) Topic 8 The Muslim World and Africa (730 B.C.-A.D. 1500) Topic 9 Civilizations of Asia (500–1650) Topic 10 The Renaissance and Reformation (1300–1650) Topic 11 New Global Connections (1415–1796) Topic 12 Absolutism and Revolution Topic 13 The Industrial Revolution Topic 14 Nationalism and the Spread of Democracy (1790–1914) Topic 15 The Age of Imperialism (1800–1914) Topic 16 World War I and the Russian Revolution (1914–1924) Topic 17 The World Between the Wars (1910–1939) Topic 18 World War II (1930–1945) Topic 19 The Cold War Era (1945–1991) Topic 20 New Nations Emerge (1945–Present) Topic 21 The World Today (1980-Present) United States Constitution Primary Sources 21st Century Skills Atlas Glossary Index Acknowledgments