• Bataan Death March during World War II, the forced march of Filipino and American prisoners of war under brutal conditions by the Japanese military

  • Battle of Tours battle in 732 in which the Christian Franks led by Charles Martel defeated Muslim armies and stopped the Muslim advance into Europe

  • Bedouin a desert-dwelling Arab nomad

  • Benedictine Rule rules drawn up in 530 by Benedict, a monk, regulating monastic life. The Rule emphasizes obedience, poverty, and chastity and divides the day into periods of worship, work, and study.

  • Biafra region of southeastern Nigeria that launched a failed bid for independence from Nigeria in 1966, launching a bloody war

  • biotechnology the application of biological research to industry, engineering, and technology

  • bishop high-ranking Church official with authority over a local area, or diocese

  • Black Death an epidemic of the bubonic plague that ravaged Europe in the 1300s

  • Black Shirt any member of the militant combat squads of Italian Fascists set up under Mussolini

  • blitzkrieg lightning war

  • bloc a group of nations acting together in support of one another

  • Boer War a war in which Great Britain defeated the Boers of South Africa

  • Boers Dutch people who settled in Cape Town, Africa, and eventually migrated inland

  • bourgeoisie the middle class

  • Boxer Uprising anti-foreign movement in China from 1898–1900

  • boyar landowning noble in Russia under the tsars

  • boycott refuse to buy

  • brahman in the belief system established in Aryan India, the single spiritual power that resides in all things

  • bureaucracy system of government that includes different job functions and levels of authority

  • bushido code of conduct for samurai during the feudal period in Japan


  • cabinet parliamentary advisors to the king who originally met in a small room, or “cabinet”

  • cahier notebook used during the French Revolution to record grievances

  • Cahokia in Illinois, the largest earthwork of the Mississippian culture, c. A.D. 700

  • calculus a branch of mathematics in which calculations are made using special symbolic notations; developed by Isaac Newton

  • caliph successor to Muhammad as political and religious leader of the Muslims

  • calligraphy the art of producing beautiful handwriting

  • canon law body of laws of a church

  • canonize recognize a person as a saint

  • Cape Town seaport city and legislative capital of South Africa; first Dutch colony in Africa

  • capital money or wealth used to invest in business or enterprise

  • capital offense crime punishable by death

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Table of Contents

World History Topic 1 Origins of Civilization (Prehistory–300 B.C.) Topic 2 The Ancient Middle East and Egypt (3200 B.C.–500 B.C.) Topic 3 Ancient India and China (2600 B.C.–A.D. 550) Topic 4 The Americas (Prehistory–A.D. 1570) Topic 5 Ancient Greece (1750 B.C.–133 B.C.) Topic 6 Ancient Rome and the Origins of Christianity (509 B.C.-A.D. 476) Topic 7 Medieval Christian Europe (330–1450) Topic 8 The Muslim World and Africa (730 B.C.-A.D. 1500) Topic 9 Civilizations of Asia (500–1650) Topic 10 The Renaissance and Reformation (1300–1650) Topic 11 New Global Connections (1415–1796) Topic 12 Absolutism and Revolution Topic 13 The Industrial Revolution Topic 14 Nationalism and the Spread of Democracy (1790–1914) Topic 15 The Age of Imperialism (1800–1914) Topic 16 World War I and the Russian Revolution (1914–1924) Topic 17 The World Between the Wars (1910–1939) Topic 18 World War II (1930–1945) Topic 19 The Cold War Era (1945–1991) Topic 20 New Nations Emerge (1945–Present) Topic 21 The World Today (1980-Present) United States Constitution Primary Sources 21st Century Skills Atlas Glossary Index Acknowledgments