• apostle leader or teacher of a new faith or movement

  • appeasement policy of giving in to an aggressor's demands in order to keep the peace

  • apprentice a young person learning a trade from a master

  • aqueduct in ancient Rome, underground or bridgelike stone structure that carried water from the hills into the cities

  • archaeology the study of people and cultures through their material remains

  • archipelago chain of islands

  • aristocracy government headed by a privileged minority or upper class

  • armada fleet of ships

  • armistice agreement to end fighting in a war

  • artifact an object made by human beings

  • artificial satellite man-made object that orbits a larger body in space

  • artisan a skilled craftsperson

  • Asante kingdom kingdom that emerged in the 1700s in present-day Ghana and was active in the slave trade

  • Asia Minor the Turkish peninsula between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea

  • assassination murder of a public figure, usually for political reasons

  • assembly line production method that breaks down a complex job into a series of smaller tasks

  • assimilate absorb or adopt another culture

  • atheism belief that there is no god

  • Athens a city-state in ancient Greece

  • atman in Hindu belief, a person's essential self

  • atrocity horrible act committed against innocent people

  • autocrat ruler who has complete authority

  • autocratic having unlimited power

  • autonomy self-rule

  • Axis powers group of countries led by Germany, Italy, and Japan that fought the Allies in World War II

  • Axum trading center, and powerful ancient kingdom in northern present-day Ethiopia

  • ayllu in the Inca empire, a close-knit village

B

  • Baghdad capital city of present-day Iraq; capital of the Muslim empire during Islam's golden age

  • balance of power distribution of military and economic power that prevents any one nation from becoming too strong

  • balance of trade difference between how much a country imports and how much it exports

  • Balfour Declaration statement issued by the British government in 1917 supporting the establishment of a homeland for Jews in Palestine

  • Balkan Peninsula triangular arm of land that juts from southeastern Europe into the Mediterranean

  • Bangladesh nation east of India that was formerly part of Pakistan

  • Bantu root language of West Africa on which some early African migration patterns are based

  • baroque ornate style of art and architecture popular in the 1600s and 1700s

  • barter economy economic system in which one set of goods or services is exchanged for another

  • Bastille fortress in Paris used as a prison; French Revolution began when Parisians stormed it in 1789


End ofPage 1008

Table of Contents

World History Topic 1 Origins of Civilization (Prehistory–300 B.C.) Topic 2 The Ancient Middle East and Egypt (3200 B.C.–500 B.C.) Topic 3 Ancient India and China (2600 B.C.–A.D. 550) Topic 4 The Americas (Prehistory–A.D. 1570) Topic 5 Ancient Greece (1750 B.C.–133 B.C.) Topic 6 Ancient Rome and the Origins of Christianity (509 B.C.-A.D. 476) Topic 7 Medieval Christian Europe (330–1450) Topic 8 The Muslim World and Africa (730 B.C.-A.D. 1500) Topic 9 Civilizations of Asia (500–1650) Topic 10 The Renaissance and Reformation (1300–1650) Topic 11 New Global Connections (1415–1796) Topic 12 Absolutism and Revolution Topic 13 The Industrial Revolution Topic 14 Nationalism and the Spread of Democracy (1790–1914) Topic 15 The Age of Imperialism (1800–1914) Topic 16 World War I and the Russian Revolution (1914–1924) Topic 17 The World Between the Wars (1910–1939) Topic 18 World War II (1930–1945) Topic 19 The Cold War Era (1945–1991) Topic 20 New Nations Emerge (1945–Present) Topic 21 The World Today (1980-Present) United States Constitution Primary Sources 21st Century Skills Atlas Glossary Index Acknowledgments