• Abbasids dynasty that ruled in Bagdad from 750–1258

  • abdicate to give up or step down from power

  • abolition movement the campaign against slavery and the slave trade

  • absentee landlord one who owns a large estate but does not live there

  • absolute monarch ruler with complete authority over the government and lives of the people he or she governs

  • abstract style of art composed of lines, colors, and shapes, sometimes with no recognizable subject matter at all

  • acculturation the blending of two or more cultures

  • acid rain a form of pollution in which toxic chemicals in the air come back to Earth in the form of rain, snow, or hail

  • acropolis highest and most fortified point within a Greek city-state

  • acupuncture medical treatment, originated in ancient China, in which needles are inserted into the skin at specific points to relieve pain or treat various illnesses

  • adobe a mixture of clay and plant fibers that becomes hard as it dries in the sun and that can be used for building

  • Adulis strategic trading port of the kingdom of Axum

  • Afghanistan an Islamic country in Central Asia; invaded by the Soviet Union in 1979; later home to the radical Islamist Taliban and the terrorist al Qaeda

  • African National Congress the main organization that opposed apartheid and pushed for majority rule in South Africa; later a political party

  • agribusinesses giant commercial farms, often owned by multinational corporations

  • ahimsa Hindu belief in nonviolence and reverence for all life

  • aircraft carriers ships that accommodate the taking off and landing of airplanes, and transport aircraft

  • al Qaeda a fundamentalist Islamic terrorist organization led by Saudi Arabian Osama bin Laden

  • Alexandria an ancient Hellenistic city in Egypt

  • alliance formal agreement between two or more nations or powers to cooperate and come to one another's defense

  • alphabet writing system in which each symbol represents a single basic sound

  • Alsace and Lorraine provinces on the border of Germany and France, lost by France to Germany in 1871; regained by France after WWI

  • Amritsar massacre an incident in 1919 in which British troops fired on an unarmed crowd of Indians

  • anarchist someone who wants to abolish all government

  • ancien régime old order; system of government in prerevolution France

  • anesthetic drug that prevents pain during surgery

  • animism the belief that spirits and forces live within animals, objects, or dreams

  • annex add a territory to an existing state or country

  • Anschluss union of Austria and Germany

  • anthropology the study of the origins and development of people and their societies

  • anti-ballistic missiles missiles that can shoot down other missiles

  • anti-Semitism prejudice against Jews

  • apartheid a policy of rigid segregation of nonwhite people in the Republic of South Africa

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Table of Contents

World History Topic 1 Origins of Civilization (Prehistory–300 B.C.) Topic 2 The Ancient Middle East and Egypt (3200 B.C.–500 B.C.) Topic 3 Ancient India and China (2600 B.C.–A.D. 550) Topic 4 The Americas (Prehistory–A.D. 1570) Topic 5 Ancient Greece (1750 B.C.–133 B.C.) Topic 6 Ancient Rome and the Origins of Christianity (509 B.C.-A.D. 476) Topic 7 Medieval Christian Europe (330–1450) Topic 8 The Muslim World and Africa (730 B.C.-A.D. 1500) Topic 9 Civilizations of Asia (500–1650) Topic 10 The Renaissance and Reformation (1300–1650) Topic 11 New Global Connections (1415–1796) Topic 12 Absolutism and Revolution Topic 13 The Industrial Revolution Topic 14 Nationalism and the Spread of Democracy (1790–1914) Topic 15 The Age of Imperialism (1800–1914) Topic 16 World War I and the Russian Revolution (1914–1924) Topic 17 The World Between the Wars (1910–1939) Topic 18 World War II (1930–1945) Topic 19 The Cold War Era (1945–1991) Topic 20 New Nations Emerge (1945–Present) Topic 21 The World Today (1980-Present) United States Constitution Primary Sources 21st Century Skills Atlas Glossary Index Acknowledgments